The DIGIT Program

Dust, ice, and gas evolve as they move from envelopes of forming stars into circumstellar disks where they can become the main building blocks of planets. Herschel-PACS is uniquely suited to trace this evolution through broadband emission from dust, through specific features of solids which reveal elemental composition and water content, and through spectral bands of the main icy components. Both atomic and molecular lines, in particular the [O I], H2O and OH lines, will be used to follow the gas, study the interchange between gas and ice, and trace the oxygen budget. The gas and dust spectral features are at the same time excellent probes of macroscopic parameters, such as temperature, UV and X-ray fields, density and thermal structures of envelopes and disks, and dynamical mixing processes. Our sample covers sources with a range in evolutionary state from embedded objects with massive envelopes to weak-line T Tauri stars with dissipating disks, and with a range in luminosity, spectral type, and dust characteristics. Both our high S/N PACS full spectral range scans (complemented by Spitzer mid-IR spectral scans) and our targeted, deep gas-phase line measurements will have lasting archival value.

DIGIT Papers

  • "First results of the Herschel Key Program 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time': Dust and Gas Spectroscopy of HD 100546" Sturm et al. (2010) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time (DIGIT) Herschel Program First results: A Full PACS-SED Scan of the gas line emission in Protostar DK Cha" van Kempen et al. (2010) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Low abundance, strong features: window-dressing crystalline forsterite in the disk wall of HD 100546" Mulders et al. (2011) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Herschel Observations of the T Cha Transition Disk: constraining the outer disk properties" Cieza et al. (2011) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Modelling Herschel observations of hot gas emission from embedded low-mass protostars" Visser et al. (2012) ADS    ArXiv
  • "The warm gas atmopshere of the HD 100546 disks seen by Herschel: Evidence for a gas rich, carbon poor atmosphere?" Bruderer et al. (2012) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Warm H2O and OH in the disk around the Herbig star HD 163296" Fedele et al. (2012) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Cosmic Ray and X-Ray Heating" Glassgold, Galli, and Padovani (2012) ADS    ArXiv
  • "Water in star forming regions with Herschel (WISH) III. Far-infrared cooling lines in low-mass young stellar objects" Karska et al. (2013) ADS    ArXiv
  • Embedded Protostars in the Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT) Herschel Key Program: Continuum SEDs, and an Inventory of Characteristic Far-infrared Lines from PACS Spectroscopy" Green et al. (2013) ADS    ArXiv
  • "DIGIT survey of far-infrared lines from protoplanetary disks I" Fedele et al. (2013)ArXiv
  • "DIGIT survey of far-infrared lines from protoplanetary discs: II. CO" Meeus et al. (2013) ADS    ArXiv
  • "L1448-MM observations by the Herschel Key program, "Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time" (DIGIT)" Lee et al. (2013) ADS     ArXiv
  • "Location and sizes of forsterite grains in protoplanetary disks: interpretation from the Herschel DIGIT programme: Maaskant et al. (2014) ADS    ArXiv

  • DIGIT Full Source List (Text)
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